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Cabin Environment

There is an erroneous perception that the cabin environment of a pressurized aircraft is bad. That is not true. Treated by HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance) filters - similar to those used in organ transplanting and burn

hospital units - the air in airplane cabins is climatized and

dehydrated, which makes the environment free from fungi and bacteria

and - because the air relative humidity becomes very low - even protects the existing airborne electronic equipment (avionics). The air flow is directed downwards, thus reducing the rate of contamination between seats. Additionally, all of the cabin air is replaced every three minutes. This will keep the oxygen rates throughout the aircraft at much higher levels than those required by human consumption, and carbon dioxide and particulate matter at acceptable levels with respect to passenger safety, health and comfort.

(Adaptado de: TAM magazine, ano 3, nº 34, dez. 2006.)

1. According to the text:

a) Human beings need more oxygen when they are inside an aircraft.

b) The levels of carbon dioxide inside the cabin have to be reduced to avoid contamination between the seats.

c) The air that circulates inside a pressurized airplane cabin has very good quality.

d) Air filters used in airplane cabins are adapted from organ transplanting units.

e) The airflow circulates in all directions to assure all passengers get the same amount of air.

2. Consider the following sentences:

1. It is generally believed that the air that passengers breathe inside an airplane cabin is unhealthy.

2. Low humidity contributes to free the air from fungi and bacteria.

3. The treatment of the air inside a pressurized cabin helps to maintain avionics.

4. The levels of oxygen rates inside the aircraft tend to be unbearable when passengers leave the airplane.

According to the text:

a) Sentences 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

b) Only sentences 1, 2 and 3 are correct.

c) Only sentences 2 and 4 are correct.

d) Only sentences 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

e) Only sentences 1, 3 and 4 are correct.

3. Consider the following information:

1. The level of oxygen rates required by human consumption.

2. The time it takes for air to be replaced inside an aircraft cabin.

3. The company that makes the filters used in aircrafts.

4. The direction of the airflow inside pressurized cabins.

What information is in the text?

a) Only 1 and 3 are in the text.

b) Only 2, 3 and 4 are in the text.

c) Only 3 and 4 are in the text.

d) Only 1 and 2 are in the text.

e) Only 2 and 4 are in the text.

4. Consider the following consequences:

1. Bacteria are eliminated.

2. Air humidity becomes low.

3. The environment is subject to risk.

4. Passengers become healthier.

5. Aircraft equipment may be exposed to danger.

6. Air becomes dehydrated.

Which sentences refer to consequences of using HEPA filters in aircraft cabins?

a) Only 1, 3 and 4 do.

b) Only 2, 4 and 5 do.

c) Only 1, 2 and 6 do.

d) Only 3, 5 and 6 do.

e) Only 1, 2, 4 and 5 do.

5. Which alternative can replace "thus" in the the sentence "The air flow is directed downwards, thus reducing the rate of contamination between seats" without changing the meaning?

a) nevertheless

b) though

c) consequently

d) despite

e) however

According to archeologists and anthropologists, the earliest clothing probably consisted of fur, leather, leaves or grass, draped , wrapped or tied about the body for protection from the elements. Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts. Archeologists have identified very early sewing needles of bone and ivory from about 30,000 BC, found near Kostenki, Russia, in 1988.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/clothing)

1. Consider the following information:

1. The different materials that clothes were probably made of in far past.

2. The processes of making woven fabrics used in clothing.

3. The reason people wore clothes.

4. The year when some ancient sewing needles were found.

What information is in the text?

a) Only 1 and 2 are.

b) Only 3 and 4 are.

c) Only 1, 3 and 4 are.

d) Only 2 and 4 are.

e) Only 1, 2 and 3 are.

2. Consider the following information:

1. The history of clothing from its beginning until recent years.

2. The reason it is difficult to know about earliest clothing.

3. The materials used in artifacts that made clothes deteriorate.

4. A place where archeologists found ancient sewing needles.

5. The different ways our ancestors used to put on their garments.

What information is in the text?

a) Only 1 and 3 are in the text.

b) Only 2 and 4 are in the text.

c) Only 1, 4 and 5 are in the text.

d) Only 2, 4 and 5 are in the text.

e) Only 1, 2 and 3 are in the text.

3. Which expression can replace the word "since" in the sentence "Knowledge of such clothing remains inferential, since clothing materials deteriorate quickly compared to stone, bone, shell and metal artifacts" without changing the meaning of the sentence?

a) because

b) after some time

c) when

d) from now on

e) long ago